This study investigates students’ views of science and technology, taking into consideration both internal and external factors. The article reports on the perceptions of 3,503 Italian students, focussing mainly on individual interests, scholastic experiences and their opinions concerning science and technology. A further analysis deals with the degree to which young people may consider following a career in scientific sectors. Findings show that although wider interests would tend to support future decisions, students appear to nurture ambivalent attitudes towards scientific careers. It is suggested that with respect to different levels of personal achievement in scientific careers various factors may have influenced the initial orientation. Such factors include the academic qualifications held by the students’ parents and the presence of science laboratories at the schools they have attended. These variables moreover only appear to affect a student’s intention to seek admission to a science faculty. In the presence of an intention to embark on a scientific career following graduation certain significant elements come into play, such as their participation in scientific events, the chance to come into direct contact with researchers and their confidence in scientific studies. If a student presents a desire to become a scientist, the degree of confidence that is felt with respect to this particular sphere also becomes significant. The pleasure in studying science subjects is the most influential variable, but its effect is reduced over the three stages of the envisaged or planned path.
Technology, Industry, and Society in the Peoples Republic of China: Past, Present, and the Future — Lessons for the World
Core faculty, School of Management Walden University, Minneapolis, MN, USA
In about three decades, China has moved up from a “third world” country to be the world’s second largest industrial nation surpassing Japan. Some projections suggest that China may even surpass the first industrial nation, the United States by the middle of this century. The “Chinese Miracle” has, however, not been achieved without social and environmental costs. This discussion highlights the following main points in continuation of the author’s studies on science and society in China since
(1) Antecedents of the “Chinese Miracle.”
(2) Intended and unintended consequences of technoeconomic growth in China.
(3) Lessons of the “Chinese model” for the developed and the developing countries.
Problems Of Technology Transfer From CSIR Laboratories To Industry And Policy Issues In India And Korea
KHAN MOHSIN U.
Zaheer Science Foundation
КЛЮЧЕВЫЕ СЛОВА: SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, CSIR LABORATORIES, NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH CORPORATION, TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER
This paper is an attempt to review the development of indigenous technology in India and Korea over the last forty years. It identifies the problems of technology transfer that the Indian national laboratories are facing. Indian technology does not have strong linkages with the industry with the result the utilization of the research is limited. Protection to domestic industry has been given so long that India could not catch up advances abroad. Whereas Korea made tremendous progress over the years because of its target oriented export policy. Korea became world leader in Semiconductor and left India far behind. On the other hand for India situation became worst after sudden liberalization during 1991 when the import of technology became liberal and indigenous technology had to compete with the mighty multinationals. Some of the industries vanished from the market due to tough competition. This is the high time that India should drastically change her research priorities to face the liberalization. What is required, that India should concentrate on areas where it has build up capabilities and excellence over the years, like software industry in computers. Secondly India should establish strong linkages with the industry to make value additions in the imported technologies.
ОПИСАНИЕ НА ДРУГОМ ЯЗЫКЕ:
Проблемы передачи технологий от лабораторий Совета по научным и индустриальным исследованиям промышленности и политические вопросы в Индии и Корее
Статья посвящена философскому обсуждению архитектурных и градостроительных проектов и решений нового наукограда (иннограда) «Сколково» в свете концепции Питера Галисона «зона обмена». Анализируя Генплан «Сколково», автор ставит более общие вопросы относительно особенностей инновационной науки, связи науки и архитектуры, научной рациональности и ее материального, а также социального контекста.
ОПИСАНИЕ НА АНГЛИЙСКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ:
“Skolkovo”: architectural trading zones
Stoliarova Olga E.
Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration
Tomsk State University
Institute of Philosophy, RAS
The article focuses on the architecture and urban planning projects and decisions for the new innovation city (“science city”) “Skolkovo” in order to undertake a philosophical analysis of these projects and decisions in the light of Peter Galison’s concept of trading zone. The Skolkovo master plan is a case for putting the more general questions about the features of innovation science, the relationship between science and architecture, scientific rationality and its material (and social) context.